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Example of a sex linked trait

Males have an X and a Y sex chromosome, while females have two X chromosomes. Certain traits, other than being male or female, are carried on these genes. Traits that you get from either the X or Y chromosome are known as sex-linked traits. One example of a sex-linked trait is color blindness. Color blindness is carried on the X chromosome, and it shows up more commonly in men than in Become a Study. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Watch 5 minute video clips, get step by step explanations, take practice quizzes and tests to master any topic. I love the way expert tutors clearly explains the answers to my homework questions. Keep up the good work!
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If a gene is found only on the X chromosome and not the Y chromosome, it is said to be a sex-linked trait.
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Key Points

Sex Linked Genes. A particularly important category of genetic linkage has to do with the X and Y sex chromosomes. These not only carry the genes that determine male and female traits but also those for some other characteristics as well. Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome are said to be sex linked. Men normally have an X and a Y combination of sex chromosomes, while women have two X's. Since only men inherit Y chromosomes, they are the only ones to inherit Y-linked traits. Men and women can get the X-linked ones since both inherit X chromosomes. This is due to the fact that men only have one X chromosome. Subsequently, genes on that chromosome not coding for gender are usually expressed in the male phenotype even if they are recessive since there are no corresponding genes on the Y chromosome in most cases. In women, a recessive allele on one X chromosome is often masked in their phenotype by a dominant normal allele on the other.
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Sex-Linked Traits:

Sex linkage describes the sex-specific patterns of inheritance and presentation when a gene mutation allele is present on a sex chromosome allosome rather than a non-sex chromosome autosome. In humans, these are termed X-linked recessive , X-linked dominant and Y-linked. The inheritance and presentation of all three differ depending on the sex of both the parent and the child. This makes them characteristically different from autosomal dominance and recessiveness. There are many more X-linked conditions than Y-linked conditions, since humans have several times as many genes on the X chromosome than the Y chromosome. Only females are able to be carriers for X-linked conditions; males will always be affected by any X-linked condition, since they have no second X chromosome with a healthy copy of the gene. As such, X-linked recessive conditions affect males much more commonly than females. If the father is affected, the son will not be affected, as he does not inherit the father's X chromosome, but the daughter will always be a carrier and may occasionally present with symptoms due to aforementioned skewed X-inactivation. If the father is affected, the son will always be unaffected, but the daughter will always be affected. A Y-linked condition will only be inherited from father to son and will always affect every generation.
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Sex linkage describes the sex-specific patterns of inheritance and presentation when a gene mutation allele is present on a sex chromosome allosome rather than a non-sex chromosome autosome. In humans, these are termed X-linked recessive , X-linked dominant and Y-linked.

The inheritance and presentation of all three differ depending on the sex of both the parent and the child. This makes them characteristically different from autosomal dominance and recessiveness. There are many more X-linked conditions than Y-linked conditions, since humans have several times as many genes on the X chromosome than the Y chromosome.

Only females are able to be carriers for X-linked conditions; males will always be affected by any X-linked condition, since they have no second X chromosome with a healthy copy of the gene. As such, X-linked recessive conditions affect males much more commonly than females.

If the father is affected, the son will not be affected, as he does not inherit the father's X chromosome, but the daughter will always be a carrier and may occasionally present with symptoms due to aforementioned skewed X-inactivation. If the father is affected, the son will always be unaffected, but the daughter will always be affected. A Y-linked condition will only be inherited from father to son and will always affect every generation.

The inheritance patterns are different in animals that use sex-determination systems other than XY. In the ZW sex-determination system used by birds, the mammalian pattern is reversed, since the male is the homogametic sex ZZ and the female is heterogametic ZW. In classical genetics , a mating experiment called a reciprocal cross is performed to test if an animal's trait is sex-linked.

Females possessing one X-linked recessive mutation are considered carriers and will generally not manifest clinical symptoms of the disorder, although differences in X chromosome inactivation can lead to varying degrees of clinical expression in carrier females since some cells will express one X allele and some will express the other.

All males possessing an X-linked recessive mutation will be affected, since males have only a single X chromosome and therefore have only one copy of X-linked genes. All female children of an affected father will be carriers assuming the mother is not affected or a carrier , as daughters possess their father's X chromosome. If the mother is not a carrier, no male children of an affected father will be affected, as males only inherit their father's Y chromosome.

It is important to distinguish between sex-linked characters, which are controlled by genes on sex chromosomes, and two other categories. Sex-influenced or sex-conditioned traits are phenotypes affected by whether they appear in a male or female body.

Example: baldness in humans. These are characters only expressed in one sex. They may be caused by genes on either autosomal or sex chromosomes. Closely linked genes on autosomes called " supergenes " are often responsible for the latter. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sex-specific patterns of inheritance and presentation when a gene mutation is present on a sex chromosome. This article is about sex-linked inheritance. For hybrid chickens with sexually differentiated hatchling color, see Sex-link. Main article: X-linked dominant inheritance.

Main article: X-linked recessive inheritance. Main article: Y linkage. The physical basis of heredity. Philadelphia: J. Lippincott Company. Sex-limited inheritance in Drosophila. Breeding experiments with Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. The discovery of sex-influenced, sex limited and sex-linked heredity.

In Ashley Montagu M. New York: Schuman, p— C; Stansfield W. A dictionary of genetics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. MIT Press PLoS Biol. Sex linkage : X-linked disorders. X-linked recessive. Haemophilia A Haemophilia B X-linked sideroblastic anemia.

Dyskeratosis congenita Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia EDA X-linked ichthyosis X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy. Alport syndrome Dent's disease X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. X-linked dominant. Categories : Genetics. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles with long short description Use dmy dates from December Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Illustration of some X-linked heredity outcomes A the affected father has one X-linked dominant allele, the mother is homozygous for the recessive allele: only daughters all will be affected.



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